10 Reasons to Establish a Substance Free Workplace Program

Employers and employees have a responsibility to contribute to a productive, positive, comfortable and safe work environment. Implementing a drug testing program can help to accomplish these desired outcomes. The following lists the most common reasons employers begin and continue substance free workplace programs.

  1. Improves company image. Drug testing increases consumer confidence concerning service and/or product quality, safety, reputation, and employment best practices.
  2. Provides a safe workplace for employees. A substance free workplace program can help to reduce on-the-job accidents and crime involving drugs.
  3. Complies with laws and regulations. Employers are responsible for understanding and adhering to their local, state and Federal laws. For many safety-sensitive industries, drug testing is required.
  4. Reduces healthcare and insurance costs. An enforced drug testing program can assist in avoiding increased costs related to alcohol and drug-related injuries and illness, while helping to lower worker’s compensation exposure and insurance premiums.
  5. Improves company morale. Drug testing can help promote a safer and more productive work environment, playing a role in fostering a positive corporate culture.
  6. Enhances employee productivity. A drug testing program can also help to reduce absences, tardiness, and employee turnover.
  7. Helps employees. Effective drug testing programs can help deter or prevent drug use among employees. Testing can also help to identify those who may need employee assistance or rehabilitation services for a substance use disorder.
  8. Protects employees, customers, and the public. Drug testing protects employees, customers, and the public from employees using drugs; it can also help to keep employees safe from harm and employers safe from liability.
  9. Prevents hiring candidates who use drugs. Pre-employment drug testing helps to prevent hiring individuals who use illicit drugs in the first place.
  10. Keeps employers and employees educated. A well-run drug testing program provides tools and resources employees need to participate and benefit from a substance free workplace, including education about the physical effects of drug use and the nature of abuse and addiction.

 

Employers should consider their unique business needs, and select elements of a drug testing program that will be most beneficial to their job roles and environment. An effective workplace drug testing policy, combined with proper education, can help employers and employees benefit from a number of advantages.

To learn more or to get started today, CONTACT US.

 

Is Saliva Based Drug Testing Right For Your Business?

Drug testing is common among employers today. Over half of United States employers require a drug test prior to employment, and many employers conduct drug testing after the initial hire as well. There are many ways to test an employee for drugs, including blood, oral fluid (saliva), urine and hair follicle testing. Many employers are moving toward saliva based drug testing as the benefits of this type of testing become more widely known. Here are some pros and cons to weigh when considering saliva-based drug testing for your company.

PROS:

Saliva based drug testing allows for fast, clean and easy administration and collection.

A saliva test collection includes inserting a swab in the donor’s mouth to collect saliva that is pooled and created in the mouth. Typical collection time take approximately 5 minutes, does not require a restroom and the specimen can be easily collected anywhere.

Oral fluid testing minimizes the opportunity to cheat the test.

While there are some mouth rinses that claim to be able to cheat a saliva base drug test, a properly administrated and collected saliva drug test cannot be cheated. The collection of the specimen is done while being directly observed by the collector and only after the collector has made sure that no food, drink, smoking or tobacco use has occurred in the prior ten minutes to the collection being conducted.

Affordability increasing as acceptance and adoption among employers grows.

The cost of saliva testing is significantly cheaper than hair follicle testing and while slightly more expensive than urine specimen testing, saliva testing continues to become more affordable as more and more companies switch to it.

Detection and accuracy of testing is higher in saliva based specimens.

A comparative study demonstrating the accuracy and dependability of oral fluid drug testing versus urine testing was conducted. Findings from this study indicate that oral fluid positive rates are higher in most categories, with significantly more positives detected and reported in THC, Cocaine, and Amphetamines when compared to similar testing conducted on the same subject using urine testing.

 

Saliva provides an earlier detection time similar to blood.

Oral fluid allows for the earliest detection of drug use starting within minutes of the drug use in most instances. Urine specimen testing requires at least four to six hours for the body to process and metabolize the drug being used before it can be detected. For this reason, oral fluid testing is a great choice for post accident, reasonable suspicion or random testing.

 

CONS:

Saliva-based drug testing has a much shorter window in which drugs can be detected than compared to hair or even urine testing.

Oral fluid drug tests have a maximum detection window of up to 3 days or less depending on the drug being tested. Urine can detect for up to 5 days (30 days for chronic marijuana users) and hair can detect for up to 90 days.

Oral fluid testing is limited in the number of drugs that can be tested.

There are a limited number of drug panels available for oral fluid drug testing, but new panels are being added on an ongoing basis. The most frequently abused drugs such as marijuana, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, meth, PCP, barbiturates and benzodiazepines are available for testing through saliva.

 

Oral fluid is not approved for federal testing of drugs in system.

For federally regulated positions, such as the Department of Transportation, drug testing is mandatory – however oral fluid testing is not allowed to be used. While SAMHSA is working toward allowing saliva testing for federally regulated employees, current regulations limit federal testing to urine specimens only.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, oral fluid drug testing is fast becoming the specimen of choice when it comes to employment drug testing. It is important to note that proper collection procedures and laboratory testing of the specimen is required in order to establish the most accurate results. Instant oral fluid testing products are available and while they may be useful to provide faster negative results, non-negative results from an instant testing device must be sent to a certified laboratory to confirm a positive drug test. Employment decisions based on a non-negative result using an instant drug test without laboratory confirmation exposes you to major liability concerns.

 

Ultimately, deciding on what type of drug test a company should administer involves consideration of company goals, budgetary options, regulatory guidelines and personal preference. In any case, drug testing is a proven tool that contributes to the safety and efficiency of the workplace.

 

To learn more about oral fluid testing for your company, please contact the professionals at Carolina Testing.

 

 

Why Pre-employment Physicals?

Most employers screen new applicants with background checks and drug screens. After all, this is a necessity in the modern workplace to enforce high workplace standards. But if employers knew that there was another way to ensure cost savings and quality employees, wouldn’t they do it? In short: further employee screening does exist in the form of pre-employment physicals. Employers who choose to conduct these physical examinations save time, money, and frustration while making the workplace a safer, more productive environment for everyone.

How Do Pre-employment Screenings or Physicals Help Employers?

Physicals are aimed to make the life of those who are taking them better. They are meant to point out areas in which someone is doing physically well as well as point out where they could improve. For employers, this means many holistic improvements to the workplace.

  • Liability. Many employers hire their employees because they look good on paper. While this might be fine for certain positions, most labor – including office labor – requires a certain physical ability. For example, determining whether a potential grocery worker can lift a certain weight might prevent them from receiving an unnecessary injury and save the company from unnecessary worker’s comp claims and extended absences.
  • Health Benefits. A physical could also be used to determine the health that the person is in. An employee in poor health can be a big burden for employers in terms of lost productivity due to last minute call outs or sick days. Alternately, it could be a motivator for an employee to make health and lifestyle changes in their personal life. This would ultimately make them a more efficient employee and save employers from overused sick days and insurance claims.
  • Increased Customer Service. Generally, a healthy employee is a happy one. Their health and mental well-being contribute to the way that they conduct their work, which can be extremely beneficial in a customer-facing setting. By hiring healthy employees, employers are ensuring that employee customer service skills are utilized to their utmost.

One thing that employers should keep in mind, however, is that pre-employment physicals can be a daunting experience for potential employees. If employers set expectations about the exam prior to the employee’s physical, they are telling the employee that they care about their well-being and are doing this for their own good. Additionally, when expectations are set it lessens the anxiety during the physical itself, which allows employees to perform better. With the right mindset from both employer and employee, it is possible for physicals to benefit everyone in the workforce.

CBD Use Raises Questions

With the nationwide rise in popularity of cannabidiol (also known as CBD) products, many consumers are concerned that they may not pass a drug test, placing them in jeopardy of losing their job or even losing their child to social service agencies.   Before we can answer the simple question of “will I pass a drug test,” we must first learn what CBD really is.

 

CBD is one of the hundreds of compounds found in the cannabis plant. This same plant also contains the more well known psychoactive compound, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinnol, more commonly referred to as THC. CBD is a cannabinoid and it does share some similarities with THC, however, it does not produce a “high” when used or consumed. While research on CBD is still in its infancy stages, initial studies suggest CBD users experience some therapeutic and medical benefits from conditions such as seizures, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pain, cancer, swelling/inflammation and some neurological disorders such as anxiety and depression.

 

It is important to note, CBD, like all cannabinoids, are still classified by the federal Drug Enforcement Agency as a Schedule I substance making CBD illegal in all 50 states on a Federal level. In spite of DEA classification, many states have permitted CBD use and sales at the state level so long as the products have zero to very low levels of THC (less than 5%). CBD products come in a variety of forms including oil, creams, soaps, vapor liquid, or infused into edibles or drinks.

 

Now to answer the question…will I pass a drug test?

Maybe. Drug tests do not test for CBD. Drug tests only test for THC which is the psychoactive ingredient found in cannabis. Because some CBD products may contain low levels of THC, it is possible that a drug test result could be reported as positive – depending on the usage of the product. It is important to know if the CBD product being used contains any percentage of THC and only products containing 0.0% THC should be considered. The only caveat here is that this is unchartered territory for this type of product and industry. It is not well controlled or regulated leaving the possibility that unscrupulous producers may allow unacceptable levels of THC in their products leaving its users at risk.

 

It is critical to know and understand that for federally regulated drug tests (such as DOT), the use of CBD products or “medical marijuana” is not a valid medical explanation for a positive test for the marijuana metabolite. As a Schedule I substance, cannabidiol remains illegal at the Federal level and testing positive on a federally regulated test comes with serious consequences. While there are some states that permit the sale and/or use of CBD, federal law still trumps state laws.

Employers need to stay informed about the constant changes concerning marijuana and its derivatives as situations like this will become more commonplace. A company’s substance abuse policy should clearly reflect the company’s position on marijuana and the use of CBD products.

For a free, no-obligation review of your company’s substance free workplace policy and program, please contact Carolina Testing.

 

Creating Drug & Alcohol Testing Agreements
In Divorce & Child Custody Situations

When drug or alcohol abuse is alleged in a divorce situation involving children, demands for testing are usually made as part of any divorce and custody agreement. Crafting a solid agreement regarding drug and alcohol testing for divorcing parents is critical to the safety and well being of the child(ren) and provides peace of mind and a level playing field for the parents.

 

In order to be effective, the agreement should cover the following seven criteria:

  1. Frequency of testing
  2. Notification for testing
  3. Specimen type to be tested
  4. Drugs to be tested
  5. Reporting results
  6. Consequences of a positive result
  7. Payment responsibilities

Frequency of testing:

Your agreement should include guidance as to how often testing will be conducted. Frequency of testing can be established in a variety of ways including:

  • Scheduled Testing (weekly, bi-weekly, monthly)
  • Random Testing (random notification by third party)
  • Pre-Custody
  • Post-Custody
  • On Demand

 

Notification for testing:

The agreement should clearly state how the party to be tested will be notified. It should also state how long they have to present for the testing requested – typically same day. To avoid parties claiming that they were not notified properly, using a third party such as Carolina Testing or an attorney to make notification is highly recommended. Carolina Testing notifies parties by phone, email and text message alerting them to the testing request and requirements.

 

Specimen type to be tested:

What specimen types can be tested? This should be included in the agreement and should include all available specimen types: urine, hair follicle, saliva, breath (alcohol), blood

Urine and saliva tests can detect recent usage. Urine testing should specify whether the collection is to be observed or unobserved. Hair follicle tests can detect use up to 90 days for drugs and alcohol. Breath alcohol testing can detect current impairment while blood PETH tests can detect 3 weeks of use.

 

Drugs to be tested:

This section of the agreement should not limit the drugs that can be tested as a user may opt for drugs that are not being tested in order to attempt to avoid testing positive. Drug testing panels today can include a wide variety of drugs and substances of abuse depending on your needs.   A simple 5 panel drug test to a comprehensive drug detection test can be ordered as long as there are no limitations listed in the agreement.

 

Reporting results:

Typically, both parties should receive the results at the same time. Attorneys of record may also be selected to receive results as well as the court if required. The agreement should require that authorization to release results to all parties must be provided by the person required to test. Failure to provide such authorization would be equivalent to a positive drug test.

 

This section should also address whether the lab test results will be reviewed by a Medical Review Officer or if the results will be required direct from the laboratory.   A medical review of laboratory results may negate a positive laboratory result if the donor has a prescription for the drug in question. It is our recommendation that this type of testing be completed without medical review and that the results be reported direct from the laboratory.

 

Consequences of a positive result:

This section should clearly articulate what happens in the event that a person tests positive. Visitation may be suspended for 30 days, may require supervision, be revoked or any other consequences that the parties may agree to. Additional consequences may require mandatory counseling, therapy, treatment, etc.

 

Payment responsibilities:

The agreement should clearly state the payment arrangements for testing. Common scenarios for payment include:

  • The person taking the test pays
  • The person requesting the test pays
  • Test costs shared equally
  • The person requesting the test pays, but will be reimbursed if the result is positive.

 

Conclusion:

Carolina Testing is frequently contacted by lawyers and divorcing parents to advise on how best to establish a drug and/or alcohol testing program for all parties involved. This article is to assist attorneys and parents in understanding the key elements that need to be built into drug and alcohol testing agreements in divorce and custody related cases to provide fair and equitable testing for all involved. If we can be of further assistance in this matter, please CONTACT US anytime.

Hiring In This Economy?

Don’t Skip The Drug Test & Background Check!

 

As the local, regional and national economy continues to grow, unemployment rates are at an all time low causing problems for some businesses. Getting applications to fill open positions is not the problem – there are plenty of people looking for jobs still. The problem is, do you really want them working for your company?

 

Lower unemployment rates typically mean less qualified applicants for open positions. Even more concerning is the fact that those typically applying for positions are less likely to be able to pass a background check or a drug test. Companies sticking to stringent pre-employment screening guidelines are finding it will take longer to fill open positions, but they also realize the risk in loosening screening guidelines.

 

At what cost?

Hiring an employee with a criminal record or someone with a drug problem can quickly add up in unexpected costs for the company. Most companies would agree – they don’t want a registered sex offender walking into their client’s home representing their company. It is not worth the risk for the client or the company. The same can be said of a drug user. Stories of service personnel going into clients homes performing duties for the company and returning at a later time to burglarize the same home for drug money are becoming more and more common. Imagine the damage to your company’s reputation when your employee get arrested and charged with burglarizing your customer.

 

What to do?

Credible companies who are concerned about the safety of their employees, clients, customers and the general public are sticking to their pre-employment screening requirements – even if it means leaving an open position unfilled for a longer period of time. To fill those empty roles, some companies are now offering higher wages and more attractive benefits in an effort to attract good employees from competitors.

 

To learn more about pre-employment screening services such as background checks and drug screening, contact Carolina Testing.

DRUG TESTING AND THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)

One law that often comes into play when an employer’s drug screening practices are challenged is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). There are two recent developments in ADA case law that employers should be aware of:

  1. Drug screening is likely not a prohibited pre-offer medical inquiry
  2. Employers must provide reasonable accommodations in the testing process for individuals with disabilities.

 

Some applicants have sought legal action against companies that conduct pre-employment drug screening. They allege that pre-employment drug screening is a prohibited “pre-offer medical inquiry” under the ADA. However, guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) states that employers have the right to test applicants for illegal drug use. Laboratory results of the drug test should be reviewed and verified by a licensed and approved medical professional called a Medical Review Officer (MRO) to determine if a positive laboratory drug test is the result of a legal prescription medication being taken by the donor.

 

Courts have also held that drug screening for illegal substances is not a prohibited “pre-offer medical inquiry” under the ADA. A Pennsylvania federal court reached the conclusion that in order for a drug test to be considered a medical inquiry under the ADA, a claimant must show that (1) the drug test in question was not administered to determine the illegal use of drugs, and (2) that the drug test did not, in fact, return a positive result for the illegal use of drugs. The employer in this case was able to present credible testimony at trial showing that its only intent in performing pre-offer drug testing was to determine whether applicants were using illicit drugs.

 

It is important to highlight that the above challenges only exist when drug testing is conducted at the “pre-offer” stage. Employers are advised to conduct pre-employment drug screening after an offer of employment has been made in order to avoid any ADA issues altogether.

 

ACCOMODATING EXISTING DISABLITIES

Employers must ensure that their employment drug screening process provides reasonable accommodations for applicants and employees with disabilities. In a case filed against Kmart by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Kmart was found negligent after refusing to employ an applicant after he was unable to provide a urine sample for drug testing. The applicant claimed he couldn’t provide the sample due to his kidney disease and dialysis. In addition to a $100,000 judgment, Kmart also had to revise its drug-free workplace and pre-employment drug testing policy to provide reasonable accommodations to employees or applicants in the testing processes.

 

In a similar case, Wal- Mart agreed to pay $72,500 to settle a case alleging that one of its stores refused to provide a job applicant with end-stage renal disease with an alternative to a urinalysis drug test. The lawsuit alleged that the applicant went to the drug testing facility to ask for an alternative test to be performed and when the facility agreed that an alternative was possible, the applicant took that information to the store manager for consideration. The manager refused to accommodate the alternative test and the plaintiff’s application was rejected for failing to take the urinalysis test.

 

Employers should review their substance free workplace and testing policies to ensure that they allow for accommodations to be made for applicants or employees who are unable to comply with standard drug testing procedures due to a disability.

 

IS DRUG ADDICTION CONSIDERED A DISABILITY UNDER ADA?

While casual drug use is not considered a disability under ADA, individuals addicted to drugs, have a history of addiction or who are regarded as being addicted have an impairment under the law. In order for an individual’s drug addiction to be considered a disability under the ADA, it would have to pose a substantial limitation on one or more major life activities. In addition, the individual could not currently be using illegal drugs. This classification of a disability, however, does not prevent an employer from testing for current drug use. Users (even addicts) may be denied employment because of their current use of illegal drugs.

 

An employer’s substance free workplace and testing policy should incorporate these issues in order to avoid potential liability.

 

For a free, no obligation review of your current substance free workplace and testing policy, please contact Carolina Testing.

 

 

Cocaine Use on the Rise Again

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports overdose-related deaths from cocaine is second only to opioids. However, cocaine’s toll on the general public receives little attention. This is largely due to the lack of remedies for the person addicted to the drug. Unlike opioids, there is no naloxone (narcan), a medication designed to rapidly reverse an overdose, or methadone or suboxone, which help people stop using heroin. For those suffering from a cocaine-fueled substance-use disorder, current options include behavioral therapies and experimental, incentive-based, therapy called contingency management.

 

Cocaine and the American workforce

Cocaine, classified as a Schedule II drug, is a powerfully addictive substance with a high potential for abuse, potentially leading to severe psychological dependence. Cocaine provides users with a stimulating and energetic high with burst of energy followed by significant crashes in energy levels. According to research from NIDA, adults between the ages of 18-25 years old (approximately 1.2 million people) have a higher rate of cocaine use than any other age group. Employers should be concerned because this age range represents a large portion of new-to-the-workforce employees.

 

 

According to the Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index™ (DTI) the positivity rate in urine testing for cocaine has increased for four straight years in the general U.S. workforce. In the federally mandated, safety-sensitive workforce, cocaine use has increased for two consecutive years. Drug tests indicating cocaine use increased 12% in 2016, reaching a seven-year high in the general U.S. workforce, and 7% among federally mandated, safety-sensitive workers.

DTI statistics reveal the ongoing threat to workplace safety posed by substance abuse. While most drug related dialogue addresses marijuana and opiate issues, cocaine, a substance with well-established dangers, continues its upward trends in use in the workforce.

 

To learn more about creating, implementing and managing a substance free workplace, contact us today!

“Do It Yourselfers” are a growing force to be reckoned with these days. With hit shows from Home and Garden Television (HGTV), an entire network dedicated to DIY, aptly name the DIY Network, and millions of YouTube videos at our fingertips, it is hard not to catch the DIY bug.  DIYers are tackling home projects, crafts, small repairs and now more difficult things like car repairs, major home repairs, appliance repairs, cell phone repairs and so much more. Why not DIY drug testing, right?. Sometimes, we save a little money by doing things ourselves – and sometimes it ends up costing us more money to fix a DIY attempt gone bad. I have a cell phone that should have only cost me $100 to get fixed by a professional. After my DIY attempt went horribly wrong, that repair quickly turned into a $350 repair. There are just some things better left to the professionals – like cell phone repairs and engine tune ups.

 

What does this have to do with drug testing?

Surprisingly, some companies have taken the DIY mentality to new heights by conducting their own drug testing in the hopes of saving a buck or two. This has become very popular in the medical and quasi-medical fields including home health agencies, nursing homes, hospitals, clinics, etc. Even some non-medical companies are looking at performing their own drug testing in house. With instant urine test kits and even the increase in oral saliva testing, executives feel that they can save money by just doing the testing themselves rather than having a certified drug testing company do the work for them. This is where things can go horribly wrong.

Executives feel that they can save money by just doing the testing themselves rather than having a certified drug testing company do the work for them. This is where things can go horribly wrong.

Companies that conduct their own “in-house” drug testing open themselves up to huge liability risks and are easy targets for discrimination claims. When a company takes on the role of “drug tester” using a store or online purchased instant urine drug test, they are effectively taking on the role of police, judge and jury and are left with nothing concrete to defend the results of the instant drug screen.

 

Let’s consider the following, typical scenario and dig deeper to see where the main pitfalls to DIY drug testing can cost far more than the few dollars the company saves:

 

The New Applicant:

Your company has elected to use an instant 10 panel urine drug test kit purchased online to conduct a pre-employment drug screen of a potential new hire. The applicant submits their application and hands it to your HR person and the HR person hands the applicant a cup and asks the applicant to go to the restroom, fill the cup with urine and bring it back out to them. The applicant goes into the restroom and returns with a covered cup filled with what is believed to be urine.   The HR person peels back the label, checks the strips like they showed her in the instructional YouTube video and makes a final determination of the drug test. Quick, easy and done, right?   Not so fast…

 

  • Is the “urine” provided by the applicant really urine?
  • Is the “urine” provided by the applicant THEIR urine or is someone else’s?
  • How do you know they didn’t fill the cup with warm water from the sink in the bathroom?
  • Is the urine the correct temperature?
  • Are you sure the applicant didn’t flush the balloon that was filled with his buddy’s urine down the toilet?
  • When the “result” is read and amphetamines shows up as positive on the instant test cup, what do you do next?
  • Do you send the specimen to a laboratory to be tested and confirmed?
  • Do you not hire the applicant because the amphetamines showed up?
  • You are confident the instant test cup is 100% accurate, right?
  • Was the amphetamine showing up a result of a legal medical prescription?
  • Can you legally ask the applicant about their medical history or prescription use without violating HIPPA and ADA laws?
  • The applicant is the best friend or relative of the person conducting the drug testing – is it possible a positive drug screen result might just be ignored?
  • Of course, you have a company policy that is in writing that addresses these and other concerns about drug testing, right?
  • Do you really know what substances you are testing for?
  • Is it legal to test employees or applicants in your state?
  • Isn’t marijuana legal in some states – we can ignore that positive test, right?

 

I know, you are saying we use instant oral saliva tests at our company so we know the specimen came from the applicant directly so there is no issue of cheating. That is great – you have the remaining 11 bullet points above covered too, right?

 

Does your company do random drug testing? Post accident drug testing? Reasonable suspicion drug testing?   Do you also test for current alcohol impairment? If you do testing for these reasons “in house”, you open yourself up to even more potential problems and issues such as claims of favoritism, discrimination, bias and/or unfair or illegal practices.

 

DIY is great for some things – drug testing is not one of them.

Drug and Alcohol Testing In Schools

The use of illicit drugs and alcohol interferes with the student’s ability to learn and is often found to be a disruption to teachers and other students. Schools, both public and private, continue to investigate the benefits of randomly testing students for drug and alcohol use. Following models established in the workplace, some schools have established testing programs that allow them to perform random testing as well as reasonable suspicion testing.

 

Schools that adopt random testing for drugs and alcohol seek to decrease substance misuse among its student populations by serving as a deterrent, giving students a reason to resist peer pressure. Random testing may also identify students who have recently started using illicit drugs or alcohol. These students may well benefit from early intervention. Those found to be chronic users may also be able to be identified and referred for treatment. The primary purpose of substance of abuse testing in schools is not to punish students, but rather to identify users and get them the assistance they may need.

 

Schools adopting reasonable suspicion testing should have clearly identified policies and training of staff and administration to identify symptoms of substance misuse through direct observation of a properly trained staff member. Without clearly identified policies and staff training, schools may find themselves subject to liability or claims of discrimination.

 

Depending on the individual school’s program and policies, the type of specimens being tested can range from urine, hair follicle or saliva. The types of substance and the length of time the substances can be detected vary from specimen to specimen.

 

Having a qualified expert in the drug and alcohol testing processes is critical in making informed decisions. Carolina Testing is happy to work with schools and school districts in providing information, options and services as needed to make these important decisions.